It is better to be a failure at something you love than to be a success at something you hate.

Category: Free Essay Exapmples on Politics

Clara Barton’s Life: The Founder Of Red Cross.

Clara Barton

Clara Barton, a young girl, dreamed of becoming a nurse to help others. She was conceived in Oxford, Massachusetts, on December 25, 1821. She was the third child of Steven Barton (the son) and Sarah Barton (the daughter). Clara was sensitive and shy. Her family educated her. As a young girl, Clara learned geography from her father. She was later able to use this knowledge to help soldiers on the field.

Clara, a civil war veteran, had an enormous impact on the United States. She was a nurse and helped many soldiers in battle. Clara was 17 years old when she became an educator and opened a New Jersey school. With over 600 students attending, the school was a great success. Clara was not chosen to head the school by the school board. Clara founded the school, but the school board refused to give her the job. She moved to Washington D.C. in search of work. Clara was hired by the U.S. Patent Office to be a clerk in mid-1850s. It was the first female to have a permanent job at the government with a decent salary. Many believe Clara’s copperplate handwriting made her well-qualified for the job. At the outbreak civil war, Clara quit her job to become a volunteer. Her opportunity came when regiments arrived at Washington D.C. on April 18, 1861.

Many soldiers died and were injured in the attack on the 6th Massachusetts Infantry as they traveled to Washington, D.C. Clara learned about what had occurred and took immediate action to help the soldiers. To help the wounded, she took supplies from her house. Clara Barton, after curing the soldiers, started a relief programme and began to raise funds to supply medical supplies to Union soldiers. Clara wanted more. In 1862, Clara was granted official permission to transport supplies to the battlefields. This was first time a women was allowed to work at hospitals, camps, battlefields. This was just the beginning for her career as a nurse.

Clara first saw combat at Cedar Mountain, 1862. Clara began traveling throughout World War II with army ambulances in order to provide medical care and aid to thousands upon thousands of soldiers. Military officers initially refused her assistance because she was a female. She eventually gained their trust. She began receiving supplies from all parts of the country after this. Clara became known as “Angel on the Battlefield” because of her extraordinary work in helping wounded soldiers.

Clara was officially made the Union nurses’ superintendent in 1864. People were always grateful for Clara’s help wherever she went. Three army wagons of supplies were brought by her to the Battle of Antietam. She assisted the surgeons making bandages from cornhusks. Clara started to search out men who were able to help soldiers wounded and carry water. Clara carried her supplies wagons along when she traveled with Union troops. Clara was a confederate prisoner and a confederate soldier. She would assist any soldier she saw.

Clara Barton felt part of the war as she helped wounded soldiers in various battles. She only ate the food provided by soldiers and did not consider herself to be any different. After some time soldiers began to recognize her. They felt more secure knowing that she was caring for them. One battle saw a bullet pass her shoulder, killing the soldier she was caring for. All soldiers loved Clara. Clara was a support soldier in sixteen battles before the Civil War ended.

Abraham Lincoln named her General Correspondent to the Friends of Paroled Prisoners in March 1865. Her task was to locate missing soldiers among Maryland’s prison, parole, and causality lists. Clara Barton founded the Bureau of Records of Missing Men of the Armies of the United States. In order to find missing soldiers, she published Lists of Missing Men. Around 20,000 men were traced by her. Andersonville prison anonymous graves were marked and identified thanks to her assistance.

Clara travelled to Europe after the civil conflict, as her doctor directed. While in Europe, she came across the International Red Cross. In 1870, she was involved in the Franco-Prussian War. After returning home, she began pushing for an American Red Cross branch. She called on the United States to adopt the Geneva Convention. This treaty allowed medical personnel to be treated in neutral roles and could help the wounded and sick during wars. In 1881, the American Red Cross was established.

Clara Barton served as the President of American Red Cross between 1882 and 1904. During the Spanish-American War, the Red Cross was in Cuba and provided assistance to victims of disasters like the Flood of 1889 Johnstown and Flood of 1900 Galveston. Clara quit the American Red Cross in 1904. On April 12, 1912, she died in her home.

Active Men With Passive Voice In Kashmir

Imre Kertesz said, “Fiction is a form that is more truthful …”.”

I was a second Lieutenant when I arrived in Kashmir in 1992. For a year, I was in Kashmir with an infantry unit. Kashmir valley was at that time a complex fusion of faith, politics and trust. I was overwhelmed by the reality and human potential for violence. This presented an endless supply of stories from human angles. They were shared orally by the Kashmiris, both young and old: stories of pain, fear, and suffering in an absurd, emotional isolated, and basically meaningless world.

There was no poetry, novel, movie, or short story, and there were no novels, movies, or poems. Kashmir is an example where creativity went awry. This is where creativity goes awry. This isn’t for the faint of heart. Creative lapses can lead to wasted time, reputation damage, and money being misappropriated. Lack of creativity is synonymous with lack of conviction. Not only is creativity required to have courage and be able to stand up for your convictions, but it also requires that you are willing and able to do whatever it takes to win. The mainstream has been unable to accept truthful accounts because of the risk factor. An opinion or judgment from a safe distance is what permeates. And Kashmiris cannot be honest and balanced due to fear. Only the Indian Army soldier is able to see the danger and will fight it.

Niya Shahdad is a direct reflection of your eyes. This is based on her bio, which was posted on The Wire’s website 29 May 2018. She seems certain that she has something substantive to share with you. It is probably bad news. Then, she tells the reader about the horror and violence in Kashmir. The style she uses is both graphic and picturesque. Both emotion and religious feelings are expressed warmly through her trip to the “true forces” and the origins of the “mindless violence, terror.”

It’s convenient that Burhan Wani was killed, and the dating sets the tone for the story.

Niya, aged 23, is a Tufts University recent graduate. There she earned her BA and MA in English. She writes convincingly with her fellow writers.

But this narrative is flawed.

It’s not true.

She is not the only voice trying to construct a narrative about the Indian State that will only exaggerate its vices and ignore the strategic mobilization, which sometimes uses Islam or independence interchangeably. The truth is more complex than that. Only the soldier can see it.

The Kashmiri Pandits, who are a minority and cannot effectively counter Niya’s voice because they lack an empirical strength, are at the opposite extreme.

Rahul Paandita was fourteen when the 1990 earthquake struck Srinagar. His family was forced from their Srinagar residence. They were Kashmiri Pandits. This was a group of Hindus living in a Muslim majority. He wrote “Our Moon Has Blood Clots”, a story that focuses on the Pandits. It shows the violence of ethnic cleansing carried out by Islamic militia. Scores were tortured and murdered, and 3.5 Lac Kashmiri Pandits were forced into exile.

There’s an ascendant version of the “Muslim” story and one that is minority. Despite the fact that there are many books and tons of information about the diplomatic, socio-economic, and historical sides of the 71 year-old dispute, some truths remain.

The “human” drama of Kashmir has been ignored by almost all media outlets, including television, radio and newspapers. Simply because we are naturally interested in the lives of our fellow humans, it’s part of our nature. People are at the core of events when they’re told a human interest story. This has two benefits. It provides a connection with the reader and taps into the natural curiosity of people.

Concerned that faujis have never written any stories from Kashmir about human angles, despite the abundance of writings by ex generals and so-called ‘defence professionals’

The insurgency contributes arms and training as well as fighters to Pakistan. This is why they place all responsibility for violence in Jammu Kashmir. They only repeat what they have already said.

On the contrary, we have Niya Khandads who play on the victim mentality. They deliberately prevent the exodus for the Pandits, but dwell on the killings or injuries of Muslims and only that – an Indian nation tricked and duped.

There is very little to be said about the soldier. He is always being duped into performing actions that don’t serve him.

According to the Indian citizen, Kashmir is not home to any individual, but rather stock images. There are’secessionist Kashmiris,’ terrorists in Kashmir, and soldiers who are merely ‘Pak proles’.

It has been years of turmoil that have failed to create any tangible characters, whether they are military or Kashmiri. There is a commonality between Kashmiris, with their problems and ambitions. Many are the underdogs, caught between terrorists and the armed forces. Understanding their fears, insecurities, pain, anger and fear would improve our collective perceptions of these emotions.

Muzaffar was a man who was raised in a strong nationalist family. He was tortured and harassed to become militancy to protect the same credential. I managed his surrender and found him to be extremely intelligent during our conversations. I owe him many rare insights about Kashmir which give me the conviction that Niya Shahdad (and her ilk) are ‘pseudofillers’ who have overtaken the writing sector and know how the entire ‘deal’ of editing works.

Muzaffar’s tale doesn’t stop here. After a week of custody, he asked for my permission to visit him parents. This I gladly granted. He never came back. I stormed his home to “sort him all out” and discovered that he was being pursued by Hizbul Mujahideen. He had pierced his stomach with an iron rod and had goneuged out his eyes. The guilt has weighed heavily on my shoulders to this day.

A jawan accidentally fired his weapon into his forehead. His grey matter dripped until medical staff arrived. He was sitting still as though in a trance and tried to get up. But he collapsed after seeing an officer approaching.

One of my school teachers had told me that Kashmiris were not as close to Pakistani sympathies as they were with POK. It was a ’emotional’ relationship, he stated. This was a year and a half after the insurgency was launched from JKLF. Various groups were advocating the establishment Nizam-e-Mustafa (“Rule of Allah”)

A woman was being interrogated by her husband about possible links to militants. I was asked by the lady whether it was his fault that his mother was a Muslim. An illiterate woman asked me such a direct question. I still have her fleeting, faint smile that plays around my lips, proud, disdainful, unfeated, and inscrutable to death.

I was able speak with Mohammad Yusuf Shah’s son from Budgam. He described to me how his Islamic scholar-preacher father had been made into a militant leader of Hizbul Mujahideen under alias Syed Salahuddin.

I have more stories, and I ask for forgiveness from the heavens.

Today, the Army is an integral part Kashmiris’ daily lives. The army has also learned more about the Valley as new generations of Kashmiris live next to the military camps. Its ethos is constantly reflecting on the local community. This ethos is represented by Lt Fayaz (or Aurangzeb). The accompanying sloganeering that is rooted in the traditional “us versus them” mindset has not made their story have the desired impact. Burhan Waani is still the dominant voice in the collective imagination.

The Army alone is capable of creating an alternate hero.

The fauji is required to write. This is not the propaganda-style stuff you see on TV. These stories are more personal and give readers the opportunity to interact with the content.

The pen can often be more than a weapon or weapon: it is the key to defining a generation’s history and causing turmoil.

Texas Constitution: Compliance With The Needs Of The 21st Century

Texas’s government is split into three distinct but equal branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. These are all part of the 1876 Texas Constitution. The Texas legislative branch will be my focus. We will look at the history and process of Texas’ legislature. They are the state legislature for Texas and meet at the Texas State Capitol, Austin. The legislature met from February 16-18, 1846, when Texas joined the union. The Texas Legislature branch, which includes 150 members of both the house and state senates, heads the legislative branch. Each odd year, the legislatures meet to create new laws and to discuss the state’s problems. The speaker appoints vice-chairs and chairs of the committees. They then study the legislation and decide who will be serving on these committees. The speaker of the house and lieutenant governor first ask the legislature to decide the rules that the legislators will be following during session. While the state constitution defines the procedures for legislating, they can be modified by the house legislature to make them more effective. After the rules are approved, legislatures can begin to look at bills.

Texas, just like other states in the United States, has its state constitution. This defines its basic structures and its principles. Although the current constitution was adopted by Texas in 1876 it is actually the seventh Texas constitution. The first constitution was written in 1827 while Texas was still part Mexico. The Republic of Texas was then created in 1836. It was followed by the first state constitution in 1845 when Texas joined the USA. Texas was forced to rewrite the constitution in 1861 after it seceded the USA to join Confederacy. The document was then re-drafted twice more during post-Civil War times before they finally arrived at the current version. It has a long history. This document is the longest in America, with nearly 500 amendments. The United States Constitution, however, only has 27 amendments. Texans have changed their constitution numerous times. It’s important not to forget that Texas was strong on individual liberties. Therefore, it is dangerous to give too much power over any government. It was determined that only the constitutionally authorized powers could be granted to the state government. Texas’ government cannot say that a power doesn’t exist in its constitution. They must amend it. The Constitution of the United States of America does not allow for local governments. The states grant charters that give powers to local governments. They then create and regulate local governments. These local governments can be divided into three categories: country, city, and town governments. Another common form of local government is townships and boroughs. Local governments are able to legislate local issues but they cannot pass laws that conflict with state law. The elected officials of local governments include big-city mayors, county executives, and small-town “cabinet” first selectmen. These officials range from local officials who are not paid to part-time to Washington D.C. officials with limited government oversight and mayors with the power of governors and legislatures.


Local taxes should be levied to finance their activities

Provide local services like the fire department or police force to citizens; and, regulate them with the appropriate commissions.

Offer sanitation services

Library services and public schools, as well as school boards, are provided.

Traffic regulation

Maintain local streets;

Regulate zoning.

Local governments are at grassroots level so your local legislator might be your friend or neighbor. They will usually respond quicker to your queries or help you solve local problems such as potholes, trash collection, and zoning. State and local government agencies are similar to military command chains or corporate organizational structures. The local government is responsible for governing according to its specific needs. This allows counties and cities to be more responsive to their local communities. The state has more jurisdiction and officials at the top of the government oversee local government agencies.

They can also step in to assist local governments in times when there are no other options.

Due to constitutional irregularities, Texas faces many political problems. Budgeting, immigration and abortion are just a few of the many issues. The annual spending on immigration by the government is nearly 1 Billion dollars. A better way for the government to control illegal immigration would save the state millions of dollars. This surplus affects the rainy days funds. It also affects education, infrastructure, as well as other important government expenses. Texas’ 21st Century Government faces another pressing problem: not enough mental healthcare hospitals are available to treat patients. Texas is the nation’s top state for medical education, prevention medicine, and research. Texas is known for its excellent healthcare facilities. However one-fourth (or 4%) of the state’s residents do not have health insurance. This is among the highest rates in the country. Rural healthcare is also unfunded due to a dearth of providers. Texas also faces serious educational issues due to economic and social problems. According to the resources available, the state established minimum standards. Equal education has been demanded for all parts of society. These were two issues I discussed.

Let me conclude by answering the question, “Does Texas have 21st Century government?” According to “Texas Economic Development Corporation”, Texas ranks 9th among the largest economies in the world. Governor Greg Abbott stated: “While 2020 presented some unique challenges,” Texas continues to shine as an beacon of hope. Texas is ranked ninth in terms of economic size due to the hardworking people and women of Texas. Our commitment to economic freedom and our state-of the-art infrastructure are key factors in our business climate. Texas’s competitive tax climate and world-class infrastructure attract people from all over the country.

Mandatory Voting: Pros And Cons

Table of Contents

Arguments for Mandatory Voting

Arguments against Mandatory Voting

Mandatory voting has its consequences

Australia: Experience the Difference

Canada: Compulsory voting: Some considerations

The most fundamental principle of democracy is voting. Participating as a citizen in elections is, without doubt, the most fundamental right in democracy. Despite the importance of voting, many countries are seeing a drop in their turnout. Canada has seen a decline in voter turnout for federal general elections since 1993. It is expected that this trend will continue. There are many reasons people don’t vote. There are many reasons why people don’t vote. These include cynicism or apathy.

There are many ideas to increase voter turnout. Many believe that minor changes such as scheduling elections for weekends and not weekdays, or a large publicity campaign, could increase voter turnout. Some suggest that technology can be used to assist citizens in fulfilling their voting obligations. Australia and Belgium, for example, have implemented laws that require citizens to vote to combat low voter turnout. While countries with compulsory voting tend to have higher voter turnout than those without them, critics quickly point out that there are some countries that don’t have mandatory voting laws like New Zealand. This paper examines compulsory voting. It discusses both the pro and con arguments of compulsory voting. The paper also examines the experience of countries with mandatory voting, with particular attention to Australia.

Arguments for Mandatory Voting

For some, compulsory voting seems simple. Voting is just like paying taxes. Only participation is enough to ensure legitimacy of the chosen government. Arend Lijphart, a political scientist, states:

A political system that allows everyone to vote but has only a few citizens exercising that right should be considered democracy. Practically speaking, a government elected in a formalistically democratic fashion cannot be considered democratic.

For most supporters of mandatory voter registration, the main argument in favor is the high and relative equality of the voter turnout. Advocates argue that democratically elected governments have greater legitimacy when more people participated in their election.

Mandatory voting has other significant arguments. Some argue that mandatory voting could increase voter participation, which in turn may encourage greater participation and interest in other activities. It makes it compulsory for citizens to learn and encourages minimal political interest. It is believed that compulsory voting reduces the influence of money on politics. Compulsory voting is a way to ensure that everyone has the right to vote. Political parties don’t have to spend campaign money to get people to vote. The emphasis may shift from “getting people to vote” to the issues facing voters. Attack advertising is discouraged by mandatory voting. This type is thought to work by depressing turnout among people less likely than others to vote for the attacker. Attack tactics lose their most effective lure when nearly everyone votes. Eliminating attack advertisements may help reduce some of the distrust or cynicism that they incite.

It is understood that compulsory voting has another benefit for both individuals and society. It protects against the effects of marginalization. Because voting is more likely when you are older, educated, and have income, it is possible that actual voters don’t form a representative sample. However, this biased sample may favor the privileged.

Lisa Hill, a political scientist from Australia, says mandatory voting can achieve equality in political opportunity. Her argument is that Australia makes every effort to remove any barriers faced by voters who don’t vote. This makes voting much simpler for all and equal opportunity is possible to everyone. She explained that secret ballots make it impossible for electoral officials to force people to sign their ballot papers. Voting is not compulsory by itself, but registration and attendance at the polling station is.

“It’s not the participation but the opportunity that’s being sought actively, it is the opportunity for participation.”

Arguments against Mandatory Voting Voting is a fundamental democratic principle that is held dearly by all. However, opponents of compulsory voting agree that it is inconsistent with the freedoms associated with democracy. High vote totals do not give legitimacy to claims of legitimacy. In a sense, the votes were forced. Some also wonder how “ignorant or uninterested” participation can increase electoral outcomes.

Another argument is that voting requires citizens to participate in politics. According to some Australian politicians, members of parliament and political parties become lazy. It is alleged that party organization loses its responsiveness, leading to party disaffection. Critics claim compulsory voting in Australia has helped people get to the polls but has not resolved the feeling of alienation people feel from their political parties.

It is also possible to argue against the continuation of a compulsory voting system due to the high costs involved in maintaining it. It is not clear how much it will cost to mobilize Australian voters and enforce electoral law in federal election. One report estimated that $5 (Australian) per voter was the average cost. It is important to note that the evidence supporting this claim is both incomplete and largely inexact.

Mandatory voting has its consequences

Most significant result of compulsory voting was the increase in spoiled ballots. Australia has the highest number of invalid votes of all liberal democracies. Belgians also have a problem with spoiled ballots. In 1995, almost 16% of the electorate chose not to vote. But invalid ballots may still be useful. If you cast an invalid or disputed ballot in a compulsory system of voting, it may be possible to elect another option. Non-voters may be dismissed by some as lazy or complacent, but a spoiled ballot in a compulsory election system could be “served as an indicator that politicians are not listening to the concerns of a growing section of the public.” There may also have a greater number of “donkey” or random votes. This is when voters choose to vote for a random candidate (often the highest on the ballot paper).

Obligatory voter participation is linked to party advantage. Party advantage is also tied to mandatory voting.

Mandatory voting has one final effect: high party stability. Australia has the highest level of party identification worldwide. That is, voters have not voted against the major parties or changed their party during elections. While the United States, Great Britain, and other countries have seen their association with political parties drop, Australia has generally remained immune to this phenomenon. “Compulsory voting” ensures that all voters cast a vote and forces them to think about the major party candidates.

Australia’s voting system requires experience Queensland adopted compulsory voting in 1915. It was first introduced federally in 1924 by a Private Members’ Act. Voter turnout was at its highest point in 1917, when it peaked at 78.1%. The voter turnout fell to 57% at the 1922 federal election. Australia has had almost constant turnout above 90% since 1945.

There are many steps that have been taken in Australia to make voting easier. The Saturday is the polling day. Absent votes can be cast by electors who live outside their respective divisions but are still in their home territory or state. Outsiders can vote by mail or at a prepoll center.

The Australian Electoral Commission organises mobile voting in hospitals and nursing homes as well as prisons and remote areas. Australia has a high level of voter participation because it is easy to vote. It is far easier to simply drop by at one of the many convenient polling points on the way from the shops than it to make excuses for failing to vote.

The Australian Electoral Commission will write a letter asking the person not to vote to explain their reasons and offer the option to pay a $20 fine (Australian). No penalty applies if the recipient writes a letter, and their reasons are found to “valid and adequate.” Indifference to candidates cannot be grounds to abstain. This decision has been defended vigorously by Australian courts.

A person may be fined $50 by the court if they are not able to provide sufficient reasons for their vote. A court may fine a person $50 if they do not pay the fine. The court may take additional actions to address the fine or vote infraction. A fine or attendance at court is only one percent of all Australian voters.

Although compulsory voting is controversial, Australians generally support it. A 1996 survey revealed that 74% favored compulsory voting. Note that the Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters endorsed mandatory voting in 1997. “Voting without compulsion is virtually impossible in any other democracy around the world, so the Committee discredited the argument that voting voluntary would affect the legitimacy of Australian election outcomes.”

Despite an increase of abstention, less that 25% of non-voters get prosecuted. This could partly be because “the judicial systems is already overburdened and gives little priority to non-voters being prosecuted.” Non-voters are unlikely to be required to appear in court, and fines are very small.

Canada: Compulsory voting: Some considerations There are several options for doing this. A separate legislation could be introduced that clarifies the voting requirement. It would include the details and the complete system. Alternately, amends to Canada Elections Act might be made. This would be the best way to create a mandatory voting law. One could also amend the Criminal Code so that the proposed sanction is applied to those who vote absently.

This requirement could be included in the constitution, just as it is in Belgium. This is not the best solution for Canada due to two reasons. The constitution is not the right place if this law does not apply to both provincial and federal elections. A second problem is that constitutional amendments can be difficult to implement. There are other ways you could introduce such legislation.

Although enacting a compulsory vote system might not guarantee high voter turnout it is possible to make sure that the law is followed. Australia is one of the countries that have compulsory voting. They impose penalties on people who don’t vote. Others deny benefits or services to non-voters and other countries prohibit them from receiving government services. Peru’s voter, for instance, must show proof of voting and have a stamped ballot card for several months. This stamp is required to be able to receive services from certain public agencies. It is recommended that you impose some kind of penalty in order to enforce the law. However, this penalty should not cause undue hardship to those with socio-economic disadvantages, such as excessive fines and refusals of government services.

To ensure compliance at a high level, it is reasonable to expect that the state will make voting relatively easy. It is important to provide accommodation.

Elections Canada would need to adapt this system to accommodate the needs of people living in remote areas, people with disabilities, and those who are illiterate. Alternative election dates such as weekends, remote areas, people with disabilities, people living in rural areas, people with low literacy skills, mobile polling, absentee voting and educational education should all be considered.

It might be worth considering introducing a variety of political responses to prevent high numbers of invalid or random ballots. Many people who are subject to compulsory voting complain about the choices they have. Offering essentially “none” could help to address the problem of compulsion limiting democratic choice.

Compulsory voting can be argued to be contrary to freedom of speech and expression. It might be beneficial to seek a legal opinion and/or to design any new legislation to ensure compliance to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Sexual Assault In The Army: Why The Numbers Are Still Increasing

The Army is very concerned about sexual assault because of the growing number of cases. Merriam defines sexual assault to be “illegal sexual contact” that is used to force a person to consent to it or to inflict pain upon someone who is unable to consent because of age, physical or mental incapacity. It is illegal to commit sexual assault, which means that the law has to be applied for the judgment. Or are the victims not willing or able push for legal punishments?

The answer to the question, “Why does it happen?” has never been fully answered. Alcohol is the main reason for most sexual assaults in the Army. Alcohol can impair your judgement and affect your body’s ability to function. Predators can easily attack someone who doesn’t know what their limits are or doesn’t have a friend to help them. They look down on people who seem hopeless or incapable of making rational decision. I think it might because many Army personnel don’t take the SHARP training seriously until they are confronted with sexual assault. Some people view it as another training session that they are required to attend. The SHARP, also known sexual harassment/assault/ response and prevention programme, was created in order to prevent such harassment/assault. It can also be used as a guide to those who have been victims of sexual harassment/assault. How to report an incident, and whether it is a restricted case or not.

There are two options for reporting to the Army. Restricted report allows victims to report the crime only to designated individuals. This will ensure that the victim receives SARC or VA assistance and treatment. This allows victims to make their decision about whether or not they want to report the crime. Unrestricted report offers the victim the same medical care as the restricted option but it also includes an investigation into the crime. “The healthcare provider will also conduct sexual assault forensic examination (SAFE) to collect evidence from the victim. The victim’s command chain will be notified, but only those with a legitimate need for information about the incident will have access to details. These two reporting options allow victims to choose between Restricted or Unrestricted. They can’t switch between Unrestricted and Restricted. The victim can choose to report the crime in any way they wish. Why is this happening? Perhaps victims prefer the Restricted reporting to the unrestricted. The Army’s most used reporting method is restricted reporting, which I hear often. Restricted reporting allows victims to report that they have been sexually assaulted. But no justice has been served on the offender. They are free to cause harm to others.

While we can’t stop sexual assault in Army, we can make sure that Unrestricted reports are more widely used to identify those who are sexually abusing people. They should be punished or sentenced for their crime. People will be less likely to commit sexual assault if they are subjected to harsher punishments. We must also protect victims better while we do this. Implementing this strategy would help to reduce the number of sexual assaults by a significant amount. The Army will continue to be concerned about sexual assault until they decrease. It is not possible to change the numbers overnight. This will take time. The Army’s leaders must be involved in this process. We must be advocates for the lower ranks and encourage them to do the same. They need to know that there are options available and that they won’t be a victim or offender of sexual assault.

The Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (jrotc): Its Role And History

Bright Futures are possible through discipline and training

Booker T. Washington once wrote, “Those who do more for others are happier.” The JROTC program provides young adults with a federal program to inspire leadership, citizenship, character, and service in their local communities. JROTC encourages young people to become better citizens, learn ethics, communicate well, and have life skills.

The National Defense Act of 1916 also created the Junior Reserve officers’ training corps. High schools could borrow equipment from the military, and students would be instructed by active-duty military personnel. In 1964, the Vitalization Act was amended to allow high school students to be eligible for other military services. Many of the active military personnel were retired and replaced by experienced military veterans. Over time, JROTC high-school programs have come a long way. JROTC began as a recruiting program for the military. But over time, it has become a program that promotes citizenship and encourages educational and physical uplift. JROTC can be a useful program for students with emotional or physical difficulties. It helps students to maintain a sense balance and discipline. Students will be able to successfully transition into adulthood by learning and preparing for leadership, citizenship, ethics, and communication. JROTC began as a six-unit program in 1916. Today, it is present in 329 schools. JROTC is a community benefit. JROTC not only encourages students to get involved in their communities, but also provides scholarships for students. JROTC awards scholarships to JROTC senior cadets. The scholarships are for one year and can be used at any accredited college or technical/trade school. These scholarships are only awarded one per year. This prestigious award is only available to grandchild/child of a veteran. Many former scholarship winners now rank in the top positions of the United States Military branches.

JROTC’s goals are to promote ethical values, good citizenship, and other positive qualities. It is possible to develop skills in communication and logic thinking that will allow you to work with others and can also help you become more self-motivated and manageable. Cadets should be motivated to complete high school and pursue a career that will benefit them in the future. Every cadet must be healthy and active, and should avoid using drugs.

JROTC has many opportunities. JROTC is open to students of all academic levels and nationalities. JROTC will help you to become a better student. JROTC program schools have higher SAT scores than other schools and lower highschool dropout rates.

JROTC offers over 100 hours in community service as part of their high school curriculum. This could include volunteering at homeless shelters or cleaning up the streets. Local governments often recognize the efforts of JROTC members and offer scholarships and awards for deserving students. Many local governments encourage students in JROTC to get involved. Contrary to popular belief, JROTC does not recruit military personnel. JROTC helps students become better citizens.

JROTC personnel are also highly sought-after by employers and colleges. The qualities that JROTC veterans have instilled are a major draw for universities and colleges. JROTC training helps students focus and be more determined. It also improves their ability to set goals and study smarter. JROTC graduates have the potential to be trustworthy, flexible, and loyal. Employers and colleges will be able to see that the JROTC graduates are well-rounded and can expect them to be a scholar, leader, and athlete.

JROTC programs are also used in the military branches of the navy, air force, marine corps, and air force. Each branch can teach citizenship skills, but each branch has its own unique crafts. Air force JROTC, also known by AFJROTC or AFJROTC, teaches curriculum in aviation history, geography history, survival, and other subjects. Marine corps JROTC showcases its drill team. They also actively participate in public events such as displaying the American Flag at a game of basketball or baseball. Marine corps JROTC also includes marksmanship.

Each branch covers four general subjects: military history, leadership, physical fitness and precision drills. You can strengthen your endurance and physical strength by doing curl-ups. Pull-ups. sit-ups. One mile runs or walks are all part of physical fitness. Every JROTC Cadet must know the history of military figures and organizations. JROTC instructors show students the important documents that have shaped America’s society and its history. Other branches might have additional information. Marine Corps JROTC might, for example, learn more about sea patrolling. They may also be interested in the history and battles over waterways. Precision drilling requires attention to detail and focus. Students learn to focus and be disciplined. Cadets need to have leadership skills. JROTC instructors train students to solve problems, make informed decisions, communicate between people, and lead a team.

Every JROTC unit distributes ribbons to cadets. You can choose from academic excellence ribbons to Cadet of Quarter/Year ribbons. The medal for heroism or superior cadet are the highest ribbons you can receive. A JROTC JROTC student who acts heroically is eligible to receive the medal of heroism. The Department of the Army awards the superior rank cadet each year. There are three awards that can be given to each unit. It is also possible to earn Marksmanship Badges. ExpertShoot is the highest level of marksmanship. A marksman must score 200 points out of 300 to be considered ExpertShoot.

Every year, there is a Leadership Challenge Camp at different locations across the United States. The camp teaches leadership skills such as teamwork, trust, sharing, responsibility, and confidence. JROTC campers learn the importance of working together in order to achieve a common goal. Every activity at JROTC camp is designed to build self-confidence, trust and camaraderie between campers. Every camper gets a job that enables them to fulfill their duties. Each cadet is trained in CPR and first-aid certification.

Since its inception in 1916, the JROTC program’s number has increased dramatically. In the United States, there were approximately 3,229 units as well as 64,580 students. 1,555 Army AJROTC troops, 794 Air Force AFJROTC soldiers, 619 Navy NJROTC soldiers, 260 Marine Corps MCJROTC officers, and 1 Coast Guard CGJROTC officer. According to statistics, between 30 and 50 percent of US students enlist in military service.

JROTC helps students in America as well as the communities around them. JROTC awards scholarships and other awards to students for college. JROTC provides valuable lessons and skills that can be used to make a citizen.

Different Understanding Of Peace: Malala Yousafzai


What does Peace mean to you? Peace is the totalization of freedom. It is the absence of violence, war and disorder. Peace is the act of fleeing. There are many perspectives and aspects to this definition. Peace has been a fundamental element of our world for many years. Many desire to have freedom, be free from violent and disturbing situations, and escape from hardships. Obama accepts Speech, Malala Yousafazi’s Nobel Peace Prize speech, President Eisenhower’s speech. These speeches show that different or similar perspectives can be held on peace interpretations.

The Nobel Peace Prize was presented to President Obama in 2009. On December 10, 2009, he delivered an acceptance speech entitled “Remarks of the President at The Acceptance of Nobel Peace Prize” that reflected his views on peace. Opening his speech, he remarks on fate and how it can be changed. 1 “… that despite all the hardship and cruelty of this world, fate is not our only prisoner. Your actions are important and can alter history to favor justice. Obama simply clarifies how freedom and peace can be achieved by our decisions. Peace is about justice. Only you can make the right decisions and live a happy life. Obama also explained that peace and justice can be achieved in small or large communities by many people who are not recognized. Peace does not have to be about large-scale wars or violence. It can also include small, everyday things that create happiness and peace. 2″Then there are those around the globe who have been jailed or beaten in pursuit of justice; those who work in humanitarian organizations to alleviate suffering This is another important aspect of Peace. It is possible to live without suffering and still find happiness. This speech has important implications beyond the people who were involved. The time frame of President Obama’s speech is crucial in understanding Peace. During the acceptance speech, American soldiers were fighting in two wars. 3″One war is over. The other is not a war America sought; it involves 42 other countries (including Norway) in an effort defend ourselves and other nations against further attacks. Since wars began, we have tried to make peace by replacing war with war. This is the exact opposite of peace and it is putting American Soldiers at risk. Obama hopes to make history and bring Peace instead of war. Obama wants peace to be a priority and believes that justice is better than destruction. Obama not only achieved the Nobel Peace Prize but many other great achievements. Barack Obama hopes for peace through all of his accomplishments, including the capture of Osama bin Laden and the return of American troops to war zones. In 1953, Eisenhower delivered the “Cross of Iron Speech”. Eisenhower contemplates the question 4 “… of all people, and how it affects the possibility for peace for all. People shouldn’t live with fear, but they are more afraid of war than peace. Unfortunately, even after peace has been achieved, fear can remain. Eisenhower also explained that fear can still be a factor even in times of peace. “Today, hope of freemen remains stubborn and brave. But it is sternly disciplined with experience…The chance to peace with clear, unambiguous knowledge of what happened in 1945. Eisenhower suggests five principles to help people move from the war aftermath toward peace. These five principles can be used to alleviate fear, promote peace, and decrease tensions. 6″This was the way that the United Nations intended: to prevent strife and to ease tensions, to banish worries. President Eisenhower simply looked at the larger picture of peace. 7 “If we attempt to fail and it remains armed to itself, it at minimum need not be divided further in its clear knowledge who has condemned humankind towards this fate.” Eisenhower just views the whole picture in the sense that it is still possible to try if it fails.

Even though people can make every effort to find peace with their fears, it is still possible to choose to live in peace rather than fear. Eisenhower and Obama feel peace should be something all people can feel. However, he recognizes how fear always wins, regardless of circumstances. Fear is an everlasting feeling in many people, regardless of how much peace is achieved.

After receiving the Nobel Peace Prize, Malala Yousafzai presented a Nobel Lecture. She tells us how proud she feels to be the youngest, most prominent Pakistani Nobel Prize recipient and still fighting with her brothers. She tells us that she would love to see peace all around, but she cannot make it happen. Malala finds peace in helping children. 8 “… them can work together, achieve their children’s right goals.” Malala said that she is the happyest girl in the whole world when she helps children in need. She hopes to provide education for the unprivileged and bring about peace. 9 “I am just a stubborn and committed person who wants every child to get quality education, and women to have equal rights. Malala does not want to feel peace for herself. She just wants the peace to be felt by those around her, and the people who are suffering. Malala is determined to help children get education, as her right was taken away at 10 years old. Malala believes peace is about giving. She cares more for others’ feelings than she does. 10″When my life suddenly changed, my priorities also changed.” Malala became more concerned with fighting for justice and the cause she believed in. Malala was expressing her thoughts on a bus in 2012 when she was stopped by terrorists and attacked. They didn’t want to see her fighting for justice. They believed she would be killed, but Malala survived. Malala’s message was widely spread. 11″We survived. Ever since that fateful day, Malala and her supporters have been advocating for peace more fervently. She will continue to share her message of peace until it is a reality in every corner of the globe.

Freedom, or freedom from fear or disturbance, is the ultimate goal. This allows you to be who you are without fear that you will be punished. Peace is exactly what it is. Everyone views peace in a different way, but there is one meaning. That being, it refers to freedom generally and the act or escaping from the fear we all experience each day. Malala Yousafzai and President Obama all believe in peace. However, they see it differently. Both President Obama as well as Eisenhower consider peace a relief from suffering. They don’t want people to feel afraid anymore. Malala believes peace is seeing people who are suffering happy. Malala wants all children to have equal rights, and to be able to get an education. Everyone views peace differently. There will be many ways people encounter peace, but the true meaning of peace and its value will remain unchanged. Peace is the act that you escape or become free. Let’s look at peace as a way for us to escape all our fears. Each interpretation of peace is an important feeling. It is also a powerful feeling.

A Report On The Book Marcus Garvey By Rupert Lewis

Rupert Lewis was a Jamaican citizen who was born on February 24, 1947. He is a well-known author and Professor Emeritus of Politics at the University of the West Indies Mona Campus in Jamaica. He is proud to be a public educator about the Garvey movement and Marcus Garvey’s work. Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. was also born in Jamaica on 17 August 1887. He was the son of Sarah Jane Richards and Marcus Garvey Senior. Marcus Garvey was more like his father, and had to carry a lot more responsibility after his mother’s death in 1908. He was married twice: to Amy Ashwood, and to Amy Jacques Garvey. They had two sons. He was a journalist, nationalist and journalist. He believed in self-determination, self-reliance and Africa’s independent development. In 1914, he established the Universal Negro Improvement Association as well as the African Communities League. This organization played a major role in the establishment of Garveyism. Garvey died in London, 10 June 1940. In 1969, he was named a national heroes. This report will discuss issues such as racism, political oppression and identity.

Garvey was a key figure in the discussion of racism. Garvey played with a little black girl who was his playmate. But, Garvey’s parents informed her that Garvey was a “nigger”. Garvey learned the first time about differences between races and humanity on page 14. Each race has its own distinct social life. On page 36, it was clearly shown that slavery created political cultures of racial isolation with deep-rooted views regarding black inferiority amongst whites. This allowed for arbitrary lynchings as well as other abuses. Incorporating slavery by the whites made blacks an inferior and unaccepted race. Some still hold this mentality that the whites held back then. Martin Morua Delgado was the one who introduced the Morua legislation, which prohibits parties that are based on their race. This law was used to brutally suppress and kill three thousand AfroCuban peasant rebels. This law only targeted black people and showed the extent of racism that was prevalent at the time. Black newspaper groups such as Negro World or Blackman were created as a means of publishing black information. Yet, page 65 shows that police harassed postal workers and vendors to delay immediate delivery. This clearly showed the oppression of black people in their attempts to communicate freely. Peasants were also exploited by large landowners via hawkers’ licences, market fees, and water rates. Inequitable parochial income taxes were also required of rural people. These taxes never provided any benefits. This can be seen on page 68. This revealed that even though the rural class was suffering financially, they still had their share of the wealth to go to the big owners. The higher classes had control over the economy and used it to oppress the rural population. This led to significant social stratification and is still being observed today. It was stated on page 69 that Garvey needed to fight for fairness in judicial proceedings and court stenographers. It is clear that Garvey was forced to campaign to ensure judicial equality. On page 77 of the 1928 League of Nations petition, the protest states that “We feel that Haiti and Liberia… dealing avec white nations.” This statement reflects the fact that black republics were treated differently to white nations. It was clear that black republics were less likely to develop and therefore were less respected and valued. It was clear that socially, black Republics were less accepted than white ones. Garvey advocated for Caribbean unity and race equality. The Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World (UNIA-ACL) was created in August 1920 to attempt racial equalization. The declaration, which is described on page 22, was created to highlight the inhumane treatment of black people worldwide. It noted that blacks are subject to secret discrimination and are denied full rights to government, which are available to white citizens.

This showed that blacks were considered inferior to whites in the pursuit of higher office. Professor Rose-Marie Belle Antoine wrote in Trinidad and Tobago Guardian that “Financial Power is still largely affluently in the hands of white minority in the region” and that a study in Barbados showed that Afro-descendants suffered from racial discrimination in Barbados. This was due to their dark skin, poverty and lack of control over economic resources. This is a clear indication that little has changed since the 1900’s. Although racism isn’t as pervasive today as it was in the past, it is still a problem.

Garvey was confronted with many obstacles in his early 20th-century career. One was systemic discrimination, which kept blacks subordinated and perpetuated the American legacy of white supremacy and political oppression. These white elitist ideals became institutionalized in American law, especially in the late 1800’s. The “Jim Crow Laws” were passed by state legislators. They segregated African Americans. Any African American who challenged this status-quo would be arrested or subject to violent reprisal. This status conferred second-class citizenship to blacks, which was intended to limit their democratic rights and keep them under political oppression. During Great Migration (1910-1920), the discrimination against blacks in employment, school segregation and voting was still a problem. Lewis outlined the consequences of these limited rights and emphasized that internal migration was rampant after many blacks fled the brutal conditions of the American South. The first step to achieving an independent political reality was the founding of UNIA in 1914. Lewis says Garvey sought support from powerful figures like the governor, colonial secretary, and a wealthy landowner. The book’s page 11 highlights the fact that the UNIA was established in order to protect all negroes in all countries. This was in contrast to the white supremacist political framework that was prevalent in early 20th century America. This organization was crucial because the United States was still without a black leader after Booker T. Washington’s passing.

Garvey’s emphasis on identity and black pride was a key component of his calls for social and political reform. In both Garvey’s speeches and in his literary works, “The Negro World,” black pride was a prominent theme. The United States and Caribbean were historically a total institution that controlled all aspects of African labourers lives and stripped them from their culture. Noting that the United States was dominated by a racist ideology, which portrayed Africans as barbaric and pagan, is important. This ideology eventually led to institutionalized slavery. Marcus Garvey on page 9 highlighted the negative views held by blacks about the world. He stated that West Indians had often denigrated or denied their culture to escape Africa’s “lackof civilization” and “savagery”. Marcus Garvey eventually sought to discredit those world views to free them of European subordination and foster pride among Africans. Rupert Lewis recounts this on page 74. In his book, he explains how Garvey began writing plays in 1930 that covered black history and culture. Garvey was also the founder of Edelweiss Amusement Company. This company ran cultural as well as sports programs. Rupert added that Marcus Garvey believed in black pride, but also advocated Caribbean integration. This would allow for the unification of Caribbean peoples and encourage a sense to political homogeneity. He made a significant impact as a Pan-Caribbeanist and a Jamaican politician during the 1930’s. Lewis noted that Marcus Garvey’s teachings had a strong resonance with Rastafari. Some historians even attribute Garvey to laying down the foundation of this movement.

Religion was also part of the identity theme.

Identity and religion are linked, I believe. Garvey’s faith was a part of his identity. Lewis, page 3, indicated that Garvey was baptized as a Wesleyan Methodist Church member in 1890 at the age of three. This means that Garvey was raised Methodist. Lewis says that Garvey believed strongly and was prominently featured in his sermons, meditations and hymns. However, he converted to Catholicism later. According to Lewis, Garvey founded the Edelweiss Amusement Company. There he gave sermons and sang in the choir. Garvey’s vibrant faith showed that he wanted to spread equality of race and the word God. While he was active in religion, he didn’t believe or approve of the leaders of religious-based social groups. Garvey’s recognition of how Christianity was used in Europe to enslave Africans gave him insight into the fact that the bible is not a panacea for all human problems. This also revealed to Garvey that the bible had historically been more powerful in influencing man. However, now society and man are so different, the bible cannot be used alone to change them. Garvey believed, page 82 that he must re-orient the religious beliefs of the people to save them. The African Orthodox Church was his attempt to achieve this. To increase the religious fervor of his supporters and to inspire them to be proud of their race, he proclamated that God would be a black person. The 1900’s saw the creation of an identity for blacks. During this period and before, they were not allowed to hold on to their beliefs. If they weren’t of the same religion, it also divided them from other Africans.

Rupert Lewis, the author, also discussed social integration. I believe that miscegenation is a major factor in the integration of a society. This is page 31. Interracial couples were mostly white males and black females. They had mixed-race children. These children were seen as the solution to the oppression faced by black people. They would be accepted more into society because they would be less segmented or marginalized. This integration is still evident today. Garvey, however, was against mixing the races as he believed in racial purity. Garvey was proud to be a pure black man of African descent and he expected others to do the same. In second place, page 86 shows miscegenation. This is where many African and Caribbean sailors married Englishwomen who had been involved in UNIA. Social integration was an integral part of the UNIA’s function. It was meant to ensure equality between black and white races, and that all blacks were equal in society.

Rupert Lewis employed both internal and external criticism in this biography about Marcus Garvey Jr. He was able authenticate all documents by validating them and assuring the validity of every source. After that, he tried unsuccessfully to interpret the sources. He gave us, the readers, a good understanding of what had happened during that period of history.

Rupert Lewis’ report on “Marcus Garvey,” a book about racism, oppression and religion, concluded. All of these issues were addressed in the book. It provided insight into Marcus Garvey’s life and his contributions to the black community. External and internal criticism were used to make sure that the reader understood this period of history. I was able to find out more about the biography from various sources. This biography provided a lot of information about Marcus Garvey’s life and was written well.

The Difference Between Federalism, Authoritarianism And Totalitarianism

From Federationalism to Authoritarianism to Totalitarianism

An authoritarian government believes that there is no other way to govern the country than blindly following the rules of authority. This can lead a society to be corrupted. It is because those in power are more focused on their own interests than the needs of the country. Totalitarianism allows the state to control every aspect and aspect of citizens’ lives. Totalitarianism government means one that cannot easily be stopped or questioned. Citizens are left powerless to follow any rules the state decides. Russia is becoming less of the federation it was and more signs that it has an authoritarian-style ruler are emerging, which could result in a totalitarian regime. This hypothesis has its root in Russia’s State Duma. This is the lower Russian Federal Assembly. 1993 was the year that the Russian constitution gave executive branches far greater power than the parliament. This gave it tremendous power against both the parliament and the upper chamber, giving it the ability not only to approve or deny any legislation, but also to take decisions regarding elections. This is a serious problem for any society. What’s more, out of the 450 State Duma seats, 238 belong “United Russia”, an organization that is headed by Vladimir Putin (Orttung 2015). Putin controls 49.5% of Russia’s major decision-making branches. Many believe Putin was returned to power through the manipulation of the State Duma. Moscow saw protestors from over 80,000 people marching the streets, saying that Putin would not be able to win if his votes were nearly half (Gessen 2014. You might be asking yourself, is the number of 80,000 people protesting too small? This is because it is. Russians do not like the corruption and imbalance. The majority of them would rather have a strong leader to prevent anarchy, stabilize the economy and promote individual freedoms. This is due in part to the way Russians were raised, and the cultural environment that exists today (Gessen (2014)). This makes it a concern that Russia continues to ban homosexuality and free speech. If Russian citizens as a whole do not see the problem in their society and continue to blindly follow Putin’s orders, they will be well on their way towards a totalitarian government.

Russia is also being pushed towards authoritarianism by the Kremlin. This is Russia’s executive government, and primarily deals in foreign affairs. The Kremlin is a quasi-secret police that operates under the radar and helps to maintain Russia’s status. Kremlin continues to control radio and television. They prohibit any media that would portray Russia as a threat (Becker 2014. This is because about 90% of Russians get their news via television, and more than 50% cite television as the most reliable source of information (Becker 2014). Russian citizens are not aware of (or unwilling to believe) that their world view is biased. If they don’t know about issues, they live with darkness. They believe that the world is perfect and there are no problems.

The corruption of the Kremlin doesn’t stop here. The Russian internet is also under the control of the Kremlin. A new law ostensibly targeting internet piracy has given the state the power of closing websites without a judge order for those suspected of illegally downloading copyrighted content. They are not clear on what constitutes copyrighted material, and they have twisted this definition to their advantage” (Motyl 2012). The Kremlin is known for punishing those who speak against the country. Akhmednabi Akhmednabiyev a journalist was shot to death in Dagestan, July. Many editors also felt pressured, with many losing their jobs after speaking about corrupt elections (Motyl 2012. People who aren’t in agreement with the Kremlin should be encouraged to leave the country and seek a new home.

Putin’s pursuit of personal gains is easily apparent in Russia. He makes use of the Kremlin as well the Duma. Putin released Mikhail Khodorkoysky and 30 Greenpeace activists who were political prisoners. Putin’s leadership style is marked by his concentration on power and disregard for the wills Russian citizens. Many others also believe that Putin focused the attention of the world on the Olympics and other sporting events to divert the attention from the significant crackdowns on journalists. Putin is simply not concerned about Russians. He is only concerned about his own gains and not the Russian people. The worst part?

The examples I gave show that Russia is rapidly becoming an authoritarian regime. It could be headed towards totalitarian rule by Putin. Is it possible for Russians to endure whatever Putin chooses? Gormley’s paper explains how identifying a threat can help us face the true monsters of the world rather than pulling the blankets over our heads and possibly have a chance at stopping them (Gormley, 2014). Russia’s greatest problem is its majority citizens seem to be happy with the current Russian government. They will soon be helpless if they don’t get up and remove the blankets. Russia will become more strict as the time passes and its citizens’ freedoms will be reduced. Russia will continue to be dependent on its leader for his decisions.

The Difference Between Federalists And Anti-federalists

Federalists, Anti-federalists Federalism is a system of government that divides power between a central and a provincial government or state. Each level has its own power and obligations to provide services, raise revenue and meet other obligations. Contrary to Confederations and federal systems, the central authority has some control over its citizens. This gives it some sovereignty.

It is easy to see the difference: while one group supports Federalism, anti-Federalists do not support a federally governed country with each region having its own rights. The conflict between federalists or anti-federalists stems from the fact that while anti-federalists believed that the constitution would create a monarchy of aristocracy, federalists believe that a nation governed by the articles of Confederation is insufficient to support an ever expanding and growing country. Next came ratification by at minimum nine states. In 1887, the state ratification was still possible. Any state that did not ratify it would be considered an independent country. The opinions of the federalists as well as anti-federalists on how government should be structured were vastly different. The antifederalists comprised mostly farmers and tradesmen. These people were supporting their families while the federalists comprised wealthy and elite plantation owner and businessmen. The anti-Federalists were concerned about three issues when they read the proposed Constitution. They were: the new nation’s size, the problem with political representation, and the disturbing concentration of government powers. The Constitution was interpreted by the anti-Federalists as if these key issues were being addressed and how they would be dealt with by the new government. The new government was a target of their distrust and fear.

The Constitution’s opponents pointed out that there were many signs of potential despotism, including the single power to tax, the lack or protection of freedoms, a large military force, dissolution state powers, and, above all, the concentration on a few of these powers. This was the issue most troubling to the anti-Federalists. This is because the Constitution gave these men all powers and laws that they were to interpret and execute.

One theme that recurred throughout the anti-Federalist writings is the fear that the centralization and eventual establishment of power would result in an oppressive, not democratic, government.

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